For lack of a better term, this is the concept of a spirit or a condition that sticks or follows a person.

The spirit is seen as a series of accidents, but may also be the feeling of a presence that follows the person. An attached spirit is completely different from a Shadow Figure, that is a physical manifestation of a humanlike entity.
Spiritual circles interpret this as one has become a kind of "host" for a creature that lacks precisely what one does or represents. Maybe one has a nice family life, or an exciting life event, that this entity finds interesting.

These energies can be an annoyance to those, who are experiencing it.

The recommendations from spiritual circles are to loudly denounce - yes - even scare the creature away. Or that one changes the lifestyle. For example, changes to a less stressful life.
An "attached spirit", is seen as an occupational hazard among "Ghost Hunters". The idea, or the fear is, this entity follows one home. Compare it to a visitor takes a flu home from a sick person.
Scientifically it is - like everything paranormal - unexplained at this time.

A theory addresses the concept of "quantum entanglement". It is a relatively new theory which describes that energy and mass can be connected to each other, with a kind of invisible "thread". In physics, it is still a mystery how such a "thread" is created. Likewise, it is completely unknown whether and how to break such a "thread". In principle, it could allow, a state of energy to follow a person. But it is not a spirit. Rather just a kind of property.

"Bad Luck" - that is, the feeling of being in endless misfortune, is very subjective, and can often be clarified by looking more generally at the mishaps: For instance: The car has a flat tire, which means that you naturally come too late to work, then the boss gets angry, then you yell at the partner at home, and the evening is just ruined. One often discovers that one incident is linked to the next - in a so-called "causal chain". Additionally comes the brain's amazing ability to remember especially bad or negative experiences.

By breaking this chain of causality one might be able to control this "spirit". Positive thinking and denial of something really determines one's fate is a good start. As soon as the car runs flat, you call the boss and the partner and tell you are late. Then all conflicts and bad experiences are gone, and you can spend a positive and pleasant evening.